via Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 06 August 2022: An Open Access paper on relations between Imperial China and the Vietnamese Mac Dynasty in the middle of the 16th century.
In 1527–1541, the Mac dynasty was at risk of invasion from its northern neighbor in China and had to fight consecutively with the Revival Le dynasty in Dai Viet. Therefore, in relations with China, the Mac dynasty during this period tried to maintain peaceful relations and avoid war between the two sides. Owing to the return of several former Chinese lands to China during this period, many people, especially historians of medieval Vietnam, have condemned the humility of the Mac dynasty, especially the humility of border and territorial issues, and said that it was the surrender and betrayal of their national interests. However, based on specific evidence from both Vietnamese and Chinese sides, the current article proves that the modesty of the Mac dynasty was only a formality and strategic ploy; in essence, the Mac dynasty was independent in relation to China at that time.
Source: Controversial border and territory issues between the Mac dynasty (Dai Viet) and Ming dynasty (China) | Humanities and Social Sciences Communications
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