Rock Art of Southeast Asia

This is the web’s most comprehensive guide to the rock art of Southeast Asia

Rock art is a particular research interest and specialty of mine. Despite perceptions to the contrary Southeast Asia has a surprisingly high number of rock art sites – they are found in almost every country in the region. A simple of definition of rock art is that they are man-made markings created on natural rock surfaces. Rock art can come in several forms, the most common being rock or cave paintings. In Southeast Asia, they are often found in rock shelters and on cliff faces. But ‘art’ is a deceptive term because it can imply some sort of decorative or aesthetic function – using the simple definition of man-made markings, rock art can also include religious rock carvings, such as the Hindu carvings on Phnom Kulen, inscriptions such as the Singapore Stone or the Cherok Tok Kun relics – and to that extent, even modern graffiti. I sometimes consider megaliths to be a form of rock art in that they are a form of marking by way of landscape modification using natural stones. This is not a widely-accepted definition of rock art, but it should be noted that some megaliths in Southeast Asia are also decorated with carvings and paintings.

To cite this page: Tan, Noel Hidalgo (2020, updated 6 April 2022) Rock Art of Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian Archaeology. Available at: https://www.southeastasianarchaeology.com/rock-art-of-southeast-asia/

One of the most difficult aspects of studying rock art is properly attributing dates to them. Rock art is traditionally difficult to date directly and have often been dated in association with other archaeological material found in the site. Sometimes, these associations can be applied across sites – for some reason, almost every prehistoric rock art site in Thailand has the same approximate date of 3,000-5,000 years! Iconography is another way of dating rock art: art historical approaches have been used to date Hindu-Buddhist carvings; writing in the form of languages and scripts also give clues about their age; while certain imagery is useful in providing secure terminus post quem dates, such as images of steamships and cars.

Due to the nature of the subjects, rock art dated by iconography is recent and often not older than a thousand years. The most common and most mysterious type of rock art, red paintings, are thought to be prehistoric (even though defining an exact date is problematic) but are typically older than living memory. In more recent years, new techniques in direct rock art dating have been used in Indonesia and East Timor, yielding surprisingly early dates: hand stencil and a pig image in Sulawesi is date to 45,000 years – comparable with figurative paintings in Europe. The age of rock art in Indonesia, along with a large corpus of dated rock art in Australia, all suggest that there is rock art in Mainland Southeast Asia that is at least as old, and probably older.

Rock Art in Southeast Asia and the World (Online Course, May-June 2022)

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In May-June 2022, I am organising an online course through the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Archaeology and Fine Arts (my employer) titled ‘Rock Art in Southeast Asia and the World‘. This two-month course is self-paced meaning you follow the lectures and complete the quizzes at your own time, and it has an impressive geographical coverage focusing on Southeast Asia, but also other parts of the world, including Greater Asia, Oceania, the Americas, Europe and Africa.

Rock Art of Southeast Asia and the World
Rock Art of Southeast Asia and the World

More information about the course can be found here: https://www.seameo-spafa.org/rockart

Recommended Books

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There aren’t that many books on the rock art of Southeast Asia, and on the study of rock art in general. The list below is my personal recommendation based on what I have in my library, have read, and most importantly, that are available. I should note that there are a good number of books in local languages that are not listed. Newer books are higher up on the list. Some of these links are affiliate links and I may receive a commission if you click on them and make a purchase. For other sources of reliable academic information, you can read my personal list of publications and rock art bibliography below. For other sources of information, you should also check out the books page for latest releases and the occassional free book, as well as the journals page for the latest scientific research.

Sale
Rock Art Studies: News of the World V
Rock Art Studies: News of the World V
Archaeopress Archaeology; English (Publication Language); 372 Pages - 07/28/2016 (Publication Date) - Archaeopress Archaeology (Publisher)
−$45.68 $94.32
Sale
World Rock Art: The Primordial Language: Third Revised and updated edition
World Rock Art: The Primordial Language: Third Revised and updated edition
Used Book in Good Condition; Anati, Emmanuel (Author); English (Publication Language); 186 Pages - 03/25/2010 (Publication Date) - Archaeopress Archaeology (Publisher)
−$10.77 $29.23
Sale
Handbook of Rock Art Research
Handbook of Rock Art Research
Hardcover Book; English (Publication Language); 864 Pages - 02/28/2001 (Publication Date) - AltaMira Press (Publisher)
−$27.00 $99.00
Sale
Rock Art Studies: News of the World IV
Rock Art Studies: News of the World IV
Hardcover Book; English (Publication Language); 398 Pages - 11/30/2012 (Publication Date) - Oxbow Books (Publisher)
−$26.38 $123.62
The Bronze-iron Age Of Indonesia
The Bronze-iron Age Of Indonesia
Hardcover Book; Van Heekeren, H. R. (Author); 05/25/2022 (Publication Date) - Martinus Nijoff (Publisher)
$40.00
Felsbilder und Vorgeschichte des MacCluer-Golfes West-Neuguinea
Felsbilder und Vorgeschichte des MacCluer-Golfes West-Neuguinea
Röder, Josef & Albert Hahn (Author); German (Publication Language); 05/25/2022 (Publication Date) - L. C. Wittich Verlag (Publisher)
$75.00
Rock Carvings in Hong Kong: An Illustrated and Interpretive Study
Rock Carvings in Hong Kong: An Illustrated and Interpretive Study
Meacham, William (Author); 05/24/1976 (Publication Date) - Christian Study Centre (Publisher)
Caves of Northern Thailand
Caves of Northern Thailand
Used Book in Good Condition; Hardcover Book; Sidisunthorn, Pindar (Author); English (Publication Language)
$60.36
Archaeology, Pak Mun Dam =: Bōrānnakhadī Khư̄an Pāk Mūn
Archaeology, Pak Mun Dam =: Bōrānnakhadī Khư̄an Pāk Mūn
143 Pages - Kānfaifā Fāi Phalit hǣng Prathēt Thai (Publisher)
$39.95
The Stone Age of Indonesia (Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 61)
The Stone Age of Indonesia (Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 61)
illustrations; bibliography; Hardcover Book; van Heekeren, H. R. (Author); English (Publication Language)
$92.00
Rock Art and Sacred Landscapes (One World Archaeology Book 8)
Rock Art and Sacred Landscapes (One World Archaeology Book 8)
Amazon Kindle Edition; English (Publication Language); 293 Pages - 10/16/2013 (Publication Date) - Springer (Publisher)
$64.99
Rock Art Studies: News of the World I (Oxbow Monographs in Archaeology, 72)
Rock Art Studies: News of the World I (Oxbow Monographs in Archaeology, 72)
Bahn, Paul (Author); English (Publication Language); 229 Pages - 12/01/1997 (Publication Date) - Oxbow Books (Publisher)
$76.00
Introduction to Rock Art Research
Introduction to Rock Art Research
Whitley, David (Author); English (Publication Language); 256 Pages - 02/01/2011 (Publication Date) - Routledge (Publisher)
$44.95
World Rock Art (Conservation & Cultural Heritage)
World Rock Art (Conservation & Cultural Heritage)
Used Book in Good Condition; Clottes, Jean (Author); English (Publication Language); 140 Pages - 12/19/2002 (Publication Date) - Getty Conservation Institute (Publisher)
$29.95
The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Rock Art (Oxford Handbooks)
The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Rock Art (Oxford Handbooks)
Amazon Kindle Edition; English (Publication Language); 1152 Pages - 10/17/2018 (Publication Date) - Oxford University Press (Publisher)
$126.34

Last update on 2022-05-24 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API

Image Gallery

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For more images, check out and follow Southeast Asian Archaeology on Instagram.

My Rock Art Publications

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I first started researching rock art while doing my MA at Universiti Sains Malaysia, at the Gua Tambun site in Ipoh, one of the largest sites in Malaysia. I was an early adopter of the software DStretch, and in my MA thesis (vol 1 and vol 2) I was able to identify over 600 images, as well as work out a relative chronology of the paintings. For my PhD dissertation at the Australian National University, I wrote about the occurrence of rock art sites and religious shrines across Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. Besides creating detailed recordings of the seven sites, discuss the various histories of the sites and how they came to be. Some of these sites, such as the Pak Ou Caves in Laos, showed a multiple layers of human activity at the site, while other sites like the Padalin Caves in Myanmar only had very distinct episodes of human occupation.

These days I try to document at least one rock art site a year and conduct a detailed rock art inventory and baseline record. Most recently, I recorded the Lewun Rockshelter in Shan State, Myanmar. I have been dabbling with a regional rock art inventory and database, as well as experimenting with data-mining to uncover associations within the rock art corpus of Southeast Asia. Here are some of my featured papers and presentations, for a full list, please visit my Academia.edu or ResearchGate pages:

Southeast Asian Rock Art in the News

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Looking for something specific? You can also use this search box:

Rock Art Bibliography

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If you’re interested in reading more about the rock art of Southeast Asia, here’s my extended bibliography of published and available research for your reference. This list is a work in progress – if you have a suggestion for inclusion, please let me know by sending me a message.

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