Rock Art of Southeast Asia

    Despite perceptions to the contrary Southeast Asia has a surprisingly high number of rock art sites – they are found in almost every country in the region. Rock art is a particular research interest and specialty of mine, and in this page you can find links to some of my recent publications about the rock art of Southeast Asia, the latest news about rock art the region, where to find relevant books, and my extensive bibliography of rock art.

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    What is Rock Art?

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    A simple definition is that they are man-made markings created on natural rock surfaces. Rock art can come in several forms, the most common being rock or cave paintings. In Southeast Asia, they are often found in rock shelters and on cliff faces. But ‘art’ is a deceptive term because it can imply some sort of decorative or aesthetic function – using the simple definition of man-made markings, rock art can also include religious rock carvings, such as the Hindu carvings on Phnom Kulen, inscriptions such as the Singapore Stone or the Cherok Tok Kun relics – and to that extent, even modern graffiti.

    I sometimes consider megaliths to be a form of rock art in that they are a form of marking by way of landscape modification using natural stones. This is not a widely-accepted definition of rock art, but it should be noted that some megaliths in Southeast Asia are also decorated with carvings and paintings.

    One of the most difficult aspects of studying rock art is properly attributing dates to them. Rock art is traditionally difficult to date directly and have often been dated in association with other archaeological material found in the site. Sometimes, these associations can be applied across sites – for some reason, almost every prehistoric rock art site in Thailand has the same approximate date of 3,000-5,000 years! Iconography is another way of dating rock art: art historical approaches have been used to date Hindu-Buddhist carvings; writing in the form of languages and scripts also give clues about their age; while certain imagery is useful in providing secure terminus post quem dates, such as images of steamships and cars. Due to the nature of the subjects, rock art dated by iconography is recent and often not older than a thousand years.

    The most common and most mysterious type of rock art, red paintings, are thought to be prehistoric (even though defining an exact date is problematic) but are typically older than living memory. In more recent years, new techniques in direct rock art dating have been used in Indonesia and East Timor, yielding surprisingly early dates: hand stencil and a pig image in Sulawesi is date to 39,000 years – comparable with figurative paintings in Europe. The age of rock art in Indonesia, along with a large corpus of dated rock art in Australia, all suggest that there is rock art in Mainland Southeast Asia that is at least as old, and probably older.

    My Recent Publications

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    I first started researching rock art while doing my MA at Universiti Sains Malaysia, at the Gua Tambun site in Ipoh, one of the largest sites in Malaysia. I was an early adopter of the software DStretch, and in my MA thesis (vol 1 and vol 2) I was able to identify over 600 images, as well as work out a relative chronology of the paintings. For my PhD dissertation at the Australian National University, I wrote about the occurrence of rock art sites and religious shrines across Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. Besides creating detailed recordings of the seven sites, discuss the various histories of the sites and how they came to be. Some of these sites, such as the Pak Ou Caves in Laos, showed a multiple layers of human activity at the site, while other sites like the Padalin Caves in Myanmar only had very distinct episodes of human occupation.

    These days I try to document at least one rock art site a year and conduct a detailed rock art inventory and baseline record. Most recently, I recorded the Lewun Rockshelter in Shan State, Myanmar. I have been dabbling with a regional rock art inventory and database, as well as experimenting with data-mining to uncover associations within the rock art corpus of Southeast Asia. Here are some of my featured papers and presentations, for a full list, please visit my Academia.edu or ResearchGate pages:

    Recent Rock Art News on SEAArch

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    Recommended Books

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    [amazon_link asins=’9231039067,2953661611,9744172495,1598740016,0742502562,9749863135,9748434192,B001SM1S8W’ template=’ProductGrid-noheader’ store=’seathesouasia-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’0a9f01a7-e3f7-11e8-ad4c-7b13388bb848′]

    Bibliography

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    If you’re interested in reading more about the rock art of Southeast Asia, here’s my extended bibliography of published and available research for your reference. This list is a work in progress – if you have a suggestion for inclusion, please let me know by sending me a message.
    Regional | Cambodia | Indonesia | Laos | Malaysia | Myanmar | Philippines | Singapore | Southern China | Thailand | Timor Leste | Vietnam | Western Pacific

    Regional Rock Art Overviews

    • TAN, N. H., & HOERMAN, R. (2019). Mainland Southeast Asia: Rock Art. In C. Smith (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. [Link]
    • TAN, N. H. 2019. Rock Art in Mainland Southeast Asia. In: CLOTTES, J. & SMITH, B. (eds.) Rock Art in East Asia: A Thematic Study. Paris: International Council on Monuments and Sites. [Link]
    • LANGLEY, M. C., CLARKSON, C., & ULM, S. (2019). Symbolic expression in Pleistocene Sahul, Sunda, and Wallacea. Quaternary Science Reviews, 221. [LINK]
    • AUBERT, M., BRUMM, A. & TAÇON, P. S. C. 2017. The Timing and Nature of Human Colonization of Southeast Asia in the Late Pleistocene: A Rock Art Perspective. Current Anthropology, 58, 553-566. [Link]
    • TAN, N. H. 2016. Rock art as an indication of (Austronesian) migration in Island Southeast Asia. In: PRASETYO, B., NASTITI, T. S. & SIMANJUNTAK, T. (eds.) Austronesian Diaspora: A New Perspective. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.
    • SCOTT, V. N. & TAN, N. H. 2016. Recent Rock Art Studies in Southeast Asia. In: BAHN, P., FRANKLIN, N., STRECKER, M. & DEVLET, E. (eds.) Rock Art Studies: News of the World V. Oxford: Archaeopress. [Buy]
    • TAN, N. H. 2014. Rock Art Research in Southeast Asia: A Synthesis. Arts, 3, 73-104. [Link] 
    • TAN, N. H. & TAÇON, P. S. C. 2014. Rock Art and the Sacred Landscapes of Mainland Southeast Asia. In: GILLETTE, D., MURRAY, W. B., GREER, M. & HAYWARD, M. H. (eds.) Rock Art and Sacred Landscapes. New York: Springer Science. [Buy]
    • TAÇON, P. S. C., TAN, N. H., O’CONNOR, S., XUEPING, J., GANG, L., CURNOE, D., BULBECK, D., BUDIANTO HAKIM, IWAN SUMANTRI, THAN, H., SOKRITHY, I., CHIA, S., KHUN-NEAY, K. & KONG, S. 2014. The global implications of the early surviving rock art of greater Southeast Asia. Antiquity, 88, 1050-1064. [Link]
    • TAÇON, P. S. C. & TAN, N. H. 2012. Recent Rock art Research in Southeast Asia and Southern China. In: BAHN, P., FRANKLIN, N. & STRECKER, M. (eds.) Rock Art Studies News of the World IV. Oxford: Oxbow. [Buy]
    • CLOTTES, J. 2002. World Rock Art, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute. [Buy]
    • CHEN, Z. F. 2001. Asia. In: WHITLEY, D. S. (ed.) Handbook of Rock Art Research. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press. [Buy]
    • SRISUCHAT, A. 1996. Rock Art News from South-East Asia. In: BAHN, P. G. & FOSSATI, A. (eds.) Rock Art Studies News of the World I. Oxford: Oxbow Books. [Buy]
    • ANATI, E. 1994. World Rock Art: The Primordial Language, Capo di Ponte, Edizioni del Centro. [Buy]

    Rock Art of Cambodia [top]

    • LATINIS, D. K., & MURPHY, S. (2017). Sema Stones and Mountain Palaces from the Dawn of Angkor. NSC Highlights, 6, 7-9.
    • LATINIS, D. K., GRIFFIN, P. B. & SOKHA, T. 2016. The Kanam Rock Painting Site, Cambodia: Current Assessments. Archaeology Report Series. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies [Link]
    • HENG, T. 2011. Kulen Mountain Rock Art: An Initial Assessment. SPAFA Journal, 21, 29-34. [Link]
    • HENG, S., TEP, S., EM, D. & SON, C. 2011. Rock Painting at Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia. SPAFA Journal, 21, 21-27. [Link]
    • JESSUP, H. I. 2008. The Rock Shelter of Peuong Kumnu and Visnu Images on Phnom Kulen. In: BACUS, E. A., GLOVER, I. C. & SHARROCK, P. D. (eds.) Interpreting Southeast Asia’s Past: Monument, Image and Text. Singapore: NUS Press. [Buy]
    • BOULBET, J. 1979. Le Phnom Kulen et sa Région. Paris: École française d’Extrême-Orient. [Buy]

    Rock Art of Indonesia [top]

    • AUBERT, M., SETIAWAN, P., OKTAVIANA, A. A., BRUMM, A., SULISTYARTO, P. H., SAPTOMO, E. W., . . . BRAND, H. E. A. (2019). Palaeolithic cave art in Borneo. Nature. [Link]
    • ADAMS, R. L. (2019). Household Ethnoarchaeology and Social Action in a Megalith-Building Society in West Sumba, Indonesia. Asian Perspectives, 58(2), 331-365. [Link]
    • MOHAMMAD RULY FAUZI, INTAN, F. S. & WIBOWO, A. S. 2019. Newly discovered cave art sites from Bukit Bulan, Sumatra: Aligning prehistoric symbolic behavior in Indonesian prehistory. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 24, 166–174. [Link]
    • KURNIAWAN, R., KADJA, G. T. M., SETIAWAN, P., BURHAN, B., OKTAVIANA, A. A., RUSTAN, HAKIM, B., AUBERT, M., BRUMM, A. & ISMUNANDAR 2019. Chemistry of prehistoric rock art pigments from the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. Michrochemical Journal, 146, 227-233. [Link]
    • O’CONNOR, S., KEALY, S., LOUYS, J., KAHARUDIN, F, H. A., LEBUAN, A. & HAWKINS, S. 2018. Unusual painted anthropomorph in Lembata Island extends our understanding of rock art diversity in Indonesia. Rock Art Research, 35, 79-84. [Link]
    • LEIHITU, I. & PERMANA, R. C. E. 2018. Looking For A Trace Of Shamanism, In The Rock Art Of Maros-Pangkep, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Kapata Arkeologi, 14, 15-26. [Link]
    • KEALY, S., WATTIMENA, L. & O’CONNOR, S. 2018. A Geological And Spatial Approach To Prehistoric Archaeological Surveys On Small Islands: Case Studies From Maluku Barat Daya, Indonesia. Kapata Arkeologi, 14. [Link]
    • AUBERT, M., SETIAWAN, P., OKTAVIANA, A. A., BRUMM, A., SULISTYARTO, P. H., SAPTOMO, E. W., ISTIAWAN, B., MA’RIFAT, T. A., WAHYUONO, V. N., ATMOKO, F. T., ZHAO, J.-X., HUNTLEY, J., TAÇON, P. S. C., HOWARD, D. L. & BRAND, H. E. A. 2018. Palaeolithic cave art in Borneo. Nature, 564, 254–257. [Link]
    • O’CONNOR, S., MAHIRTA, LOUYS, J., KEALY, S. & BROCKWELL, S. 2017. New engraving finds in Alor Island, Indonesia extend known distribution of engravings in Oceania. Archaeological Research in Asia, 15, 116-128. [Link]
    • O’CONNOR, S., MAHIRTA, TANUDIRJO, D., RIRIMASSE, M., HUSNI, M., KEALY, S., HAWKINS, S. & ALIFAH 2017. Ideology, Ritual Performance and Its Manifestations in the Rock Art of Timor-Leste and Kisar Island, Island Southeast Asia. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 1-17. [Link]
    • KUSMARTONO, V. P. R., HINDARTO, I. & HERWANTO, E. 2017. Late Pleistocene to recent: Human activities in the deep interior equatorial rainforest of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Quaternary International, 448, 82-94. [Link]
    • AUBERT, M., BRUMM, A. & TAÇON, P. S. C. 2017. The Timing and Nature of Human Colonization of Southeast Asia in the Late Pleistocene: A Rock Art Perspective. Current Anthropology, 58, 553-566. [Link]
    • SUGIYANTO, B. 2016. Rock-Artkalimantan Timur: Jenis Gambar Dan Waktu Pembuatannya. Naditira Widya, 10, 1-12. [Link]
    • OKTAVIANA, A. A., SETIAWAN, P. & SAPTOMO, E. W. 2016. Rock Art Pattern in Harimau Cave Site in South Sumatra. In: SIMANJUNTAK, T. (ed.) Harimau Cave and the Long Journey of Oku Civilization. Jakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.
    • OKTAVIANA, A. A. & SETIAWAN, P. 2016. Comparative Analysis of Non-figurative Rock Art at Gua Harimau Site within the Scope of Indonesian Archipelago. In: PRASETYO, B., NASTITI, T. S. & SIMANJUNTAK, T. (eds.) Austronesian Diaspora: A New Perspective. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.
    • OKTAVIANA, A. A., BULBECK, D., O’CONNOR, S., HAKIM, B., SURYATMAN, WIBOWO, U. P., PIERRE, E. S. & FAKHRI 2016. Hand stencils with and without narrowed fingers at two new rock art sites in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Rock Art Research, 33, 32-48. [Link]
    • MULYADI, Y. 2016. Distribusi dan Sebaran Situs Gambar Cadas di Indonesia: Sintesis Penelitian. Jurnal Arkeologi Malaysia, 29, 44-56. [Link]
    • PERMANA, R. C. E. (ed.) 2015. Gambar Cadas Prasejarah di Indonesia, Jakarta: Direktorat Pelestarian Cagar Budaya dan Permuseuman; Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan; Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
    • O’CONNOR, S. 2015. Rethinking the Neolithic in Island Southeast Asia, with Particular Reference to the Archaeology of Timor-Leste and Sulawesi. Archipel, 90, 15-47. [Link]
    • O’CONNOR, S., LOUYS, J., KEALY, S. & MAHIRTA 2015. First record of painted rock art near Kupang, West Timor, Indonesia, and the origins and distribution of the Austronesian Painting Tradition. Rock Art Research, 32, 193-201. [Link]
    • MARYONE, R. 2014. Fungsi dan Simbol pada Karwar. Jurnal Arkeologi Papua, 6, 143-151. [Link]
    • MARYONE, R. 2014. Megalitik dan Cerita Rakyat Suku Baham di Gua Sososraweru Fak-Fak. Jurnal Arkeologi Papua, 6, 113-120. [Link]
    • AUBERT, M., BRUMM, A., RAMLI, M., SUTIKNA, T., SAPTOMO, E. W., HAKIM, B., MORWOOD, M. J., BERGH, G. D. V. D., KINSLEY, L. & DOSSETO, A. 2014. Pleistocene cave art from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Nature, 514, 223-227. [Link]
    • TAÇON, P. S. C. & MAY, S. K. 2013. Rock art evidence for Macassan–Aboriginal contact in northwestern Arnhem Land. In: CLARK, M. & MAY, S. K. (eds.) Macassan History and Heritage: Journeys, Encounters and Influences. Canberra: ANU E-Press. [Link]
    • MAY, S. K., TAÇON, P. S. C., PATERSON, A. & TRAVERS, M. 2013. The world from Malarrak: Depictions of South-east Asian and European subjects in rock art from the Wellington Range, Australia. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 1, 45-56. [Link]
    • MARSCHALL, W. & WÄFLER, M. 2013. Felsmalereien Indonesiens Band 2: Teluk Berau, Berlin, Edition Winterwork.
    • MARSCHALL, W. & WÄFLER, M. 2012. Felsmalereien Indonesiens Band 1: Pulau Muna, Berlin, Edition Winterwork.
    • TACON, P. S. C., MAY, S. K., FALLON, S. J., TRAVERS, M., GUSE, D. & LAMILAMI, R. 2010. A minimum age for early depictions of Southeast Asian praus in the rock art of Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. Australian Archaeology, 71, 1-10. [Link]
    • FAGE, L.-H. & CHAZINE, J.-M. 2010. Borneo: Memory of the Caves, Caylus, France, Le Kalimanthrope. [Buy]
    • CHAZINE, J.-M. & FERRIÉ, J.-G. 2008. Recent Archaeological Discoveries in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. IPPA BULLETIN, 28, 16-22. [Link]
    • LAPE, P. V., O’CONNOR, S. & BURNINGHAM, N. 2007. Rock Art: A Potential Source of Information about Past Maritime Technology in the South-East Asia-Pacific Region. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 36, 238–253. [Link]
    • CHAZINE, J. 2005. Rock art, burials and habitations: Caves in East Kalimantan. Asian Perspectives, 44, 219-230. [Link]
    • ARIFIN, K. & DELANGHE, P. 2004. Rock art in West Papua, Paris, Unesco Publishing. [Buy]
    • PLAGNES, V., CAUSSE, C., FONTUGNE, M., VALLADAS, H., CHAZINE, J.-M. & FAGEC, L.-H. 2003. Cross dating (Th/U-14C) of calcite covering prehistoric paintings in Borneo. Quartenary Research, 60, 172-179. [Link]
    • O’CONNOR, S. 2003. Nine new painted rock art sites from East Timor in the Context of the Western Pacific Region. Asian Perspectives, 42, 96-128. [Link]
    • BALLARD, C., BRADLEY, R., MYHRE, L. N. & WILSON, M. 2003. The ship as symbol in the prehistory of Scandinavia and Southeast Asia. World Archaeology, 35, 385-403. [Link]
    • CALDWELL, I. & HAZLEWOOD, A. A. 1994. The holy footprints of the venerable Gautama; A new translation of the Pasir Panjang inscription. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 150, 457-480. [Link]
    • BALLARD, C. 1992. Painted rock art sites in Western Melanesia: Locational evidence for an ‘Austronesian’ Tradition. In: MCDONALD, J. & HASKOVEC, P. (eds.) State of the art: Regional rock art studies in Australia and Melanesia. Melbourne: Australian Rock Art Research Association. [Buy]
    • ROSENFELD, A. 1988. Rock art in western Oceania. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 8, 119–38. [Link]
    • BALLARD, C. 1988. Dudumahan: A Rock Art Site on Kai Kecil, Southeast Moluccas. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 8, 139-161. [Link]
    • VAN HEEKEREN, H. R. 1972. The Stone Age of Indonesia, The Hague, Martinus-Nijhoff. [Buy]
    • RÖDER, J. (ed.) 1959. Felsbilder und Vorgeschichte des MacCluer-Golfes, West-Neuguinea, Darmstadt: L. C. Wittich. [Buy]
    • VAN HEEKEREN, H. R. 1958. The Bronze-Iron Age of Indonesia, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff. [Buy]

    Rock Art of Laos [top]

    • TAN, N. H. 2018. The Cliff Paintings of Pha Taem, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR. Rock Art Research, 35, 62-78. [Link]
    • TAN, N. H. 2018. Rock art at the cave of a thousand Buddhas, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR. Archaeological Research in Asia, 15, 129-136. [Link]
    • Singthong, S., Zeitoun, V., Pierret, A., & Forestier, H. (2016). An outlook on prehistoric research in Laos: An inventory and some perspectives. Quaternary International, 19, 177-182. [Link]
    • TAN, N. H. & WALKER-VADILLO, V. 2015. The Curious Case of the Steamship on the Mekong. Asian Perspectives, 54, 253-273. [Link]
    • EGLOFF, B. & KELLY, K. 2015. Sacred Caves of Tam Ting (Pak Ou), Luang Prabang, Laos: Mystery, Splendor, and Desecration, Bangkok, White Lotus Press. [Buy]
    • TAN, N. H. & TAÇON, P. S. C. 2014. Rock Art and the Sacred Landscapes of Mainland Southeast Asia. In: GILLETTE, D., MURRAY, W. B., GREER, M. & HAYWARD, M. H. (eds.) Rock Art and Sacred Landscapes. New York: Springer Science. [Link]

    Rock Art of Malaysia [top]

    • GOH, H. M., SAW, C. Y., SHAHIDAN, S., SAIDIN, M. & CURNOE, D. 2019. Community heritage engagement in Malaysian archaeology: A case from the prehistoric rock art site of Tambun. Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage, 6, 110-121. [Link]
    • TAN, N. H. & CHIA, S. 2012. Revisiting the Rock Art at Gua Tambun, Perak, Malaysia. In: TJOA-BONATZ, M. L., REINECKE, A. & BONATZ, D. (eds.) Crossing Borders: Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, Volume 1. Singapore: NUS Press. [Buy]
    • TAN, N. H. & CHIA, S. 2011. Current Research on the Rock Art at Gua Tambun, Perak, Malaysia. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 31, 93-108. [Link]
    • MOKHTAR SAIDIN & TAÇON, P. S. C. 2011. The recent rock drawings of the Lenggong Valley, Perak, Malaysia. Antiquity, 85, 459–475. [Link]
    • TAN, N. H. & CHIA, S. 2010. ‘New’ Rock Art from Gua Tambun, Perak, Malaysia. Rock Art Research, 27, 9-18. [Link]
    • TAÇON, P. S. C., DATAN, I. & SAUFFI, M. S. 2010. New Engravings Discovered at Santubong, Sarawak, Malaysia. Sarawak Museum Journal, 67, 105-121. [Link]
    • DOHERTY, C., BUCKLEY, R., GNANARATNAM, A., BEAVITT, P. & BEAVITT, W. 2007. Archaeological investigations at Sungai Santubong, Kuching, Sarawak. The Sarawak Museum Journal, 63, 65-94.
    • PYATT, F. B., WILSON, B. & BARKER, G. W. 2005. The chemistry of tree resins and ancient rock paintings in the Niah Caves, Sarawak (Borneo): some evidence of rain forest management by early human populations. Journal of Archaeological Science, 32, 897-901. [Link]
    • DATAN, I. 1998. Rock engravings. In: NIK HASSAN SHUHAIMI NIK ABDUL RAHMAN (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Early History. Singapore: Archipelago Press. [Buy]
    • DATAN, I. 1998. Cave Drawings. In: RAHMAN, N. H. S. N. A. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Early History. Singapore: Archipelago Press. [Buy]
    • DATAN, I. 1993. Archaeological Excavations at Gua Sireh (Serian) and Lubang Angin (Gunung Muluh National Park), Sarawak, Malaysia. The Sarawak Museum Journal, 45, 1-191. [Link]
    • FAULSTICH, P. 1991. From ashes to gravestones: The Charcoal drawings of Gua Badak, Malaysia. In: PEARSON, C. & B. K. SWARTZ, J. (eds.) Rock Art and Posterity. Melbourne: Australian Rock Art Association. [Buy]
    • DATAN, I. & BELLWOOD, P. 1991. Recent research at Gua Sireh (Serian) and Lubang Angin (Gunung Mulu National Park), Sarawak. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 10, 386-405. [Link]
    • ADI HAJI TAHA 1991. Recent Archaeological Discoveries in Peninsular Malaysia (1987 – 1990). Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 64, 75-96. [Link]
    • ADI HAJI TAHA 1990. Conservation and Management Problems of Rock Art Sites in Peninsular Malaysia. Malaya in History, 18, 92-101. [Link]
    • HARRISSON, T. 1973. Newly Discovered Prehistoric Rock Carvings in Ulu Tomani, Sabah. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 46, 141-144. [Link]
    • HARRISSON, T. & REAVIS, J. L. 1966. The Sarang Caves in Sarawak. Sarawak Museum Journal, 14, 249-268. [Link]
    • KNUTH, E. 1962. The oracle at Tambun: Malay and Thai paintings compared. Malaysia in History, 8, 3-10. [Link]

    Rock Art of Myanmar (Burma) [top]

    • TAN, N. H. & TAÇON, P. S. C. 2014. Rock Art and the Sacred Landscapes of Mainland Southeast Asia. In: GILLETTE, D., MURRAY, W. B., GREER, M. & HAYWARD, M. H. (eds.) Rock Art and Sacred Landscapes. New York: Springer Science. [Buy]
    • AUNG, Y. Y. 2013. New discoveries of rock art in Badalin Caves, Myanmar. Rock Art Research, 30, 253. [Link]
    • GUTMAN, P., HUDSON, B., HTIN, K. M. & AUNG, K. T. 2007. Rock art and artisans in the Lemro Valley, Arakan, Myanmar. Antiquity, 81, 655-674. [Link]
    • TAÇON, P. S. C., DAW YEE YEE AUNG & THORNE, A. 2004. Myanmar prehistory: rare rock-markings revealed. Archaeology in Oceania, 39, 138-139. [Link]
    • U AUNG THAW 1971. The “Neolithic” culture of the Padah-lin Caves. Asian Perspectives, 14, 123-133. [Link]

    Rock Art of the Philippines [top]

    • VALIENTES, E. A. (2019). The Archaeology and Meaning of the Boat-shaped Stone Markers in Vuhus Island, Batanes Province, Northern Philippines. Hukay, 21, 1-25. [Link]
    • JALANDONI, A. & TACON, P. S. C. 2018. A new recording and interpretation of the rock art of Angono, Rizal, Philippines. Rock Art Research, 35, 47-61. [Link]
    • FAYLONA, M. G. P. G., LISING, C. M. Q. & DIZON, E. Z. 2016. Re-Examining Pictograms In The Caves Of Cagayan Valley, Philippines. Rock Art Research, 33, 182-192. [Link]
    • BAUTISTA, A. P. 2015. Current Status of Archaeology in the Philippines. In: TAN, N. H. (ed.) Advancing Southeast Asian Archaeology 2013: Selected Papers from the First SEAMEO SPAFA International Conference on Southeast Asian Archaeology, Chonburi, Thailand 2013. Bangkok: SEAMEO SPAFA. [Link]
    • JENKINS, D. A. 2007. The voice at the red wall: A study of Philippine rock art and ethnography. Philippine Quarterly of Culture & Society, 35, 373-383. [Link]
    • PERALTA, J. T. 2000. The Tinge of Red: Prehistory of Art in the Philippines, Manila, National Commission for Culture and the Arts. [Buy]

    Rock Art of Singapore [top]

    • LAIDLAY, J. W. 1848. Three fragments from the Singapore Stone. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 17, 66-72.
    • LAIDLAY, J. W. 1848. Note on the Inscriptions from Singapore and Province Wellesley Forwarded by the Hon. Col Butterworth and Col J. Low. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 17, 66-72.
    • BLAND, W. 1837. Inscription on the Jetty at Singapur. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 6, 680-682.
    • CRAWFURD, J. 1830. Journal of an Embassy to the Courts of Siam and Cochin China, London, H. Colburn and R. Bentley.

    Rock Art of Southern China [top]

    • DAMBRICOURT-MALASSÉ, A., CAO, B., YOU, Q. & ZHANG, P. 2019. Agro-pastoral rituals and shaman dances of Dahongyan rock painting, Guizhou, Southwestern China, new investigations. Quaternary International. [Link]
    • SHAO, Q.-F., PONS-BRANCHU, E., ZHU, Q.-P., WANG, W., VALLADAS, H. & FONTUGNE, M. 2017. High precision U/Th dating of the rock paintings at Mt. Huashan, Guangxi, southern China. Quaternary Research, 88, 1-17. [Link]
    • DEMATTÈ, P. 2015. Travel and landscape: the Zuo River Valley rock art of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Antiquity, 89, 613-628. [Link]
    • GAO, Q. 2013. The Huashan Rock art Site (China): The Sacred Meeting Place for Sky, Water and Earth. Rock Art Research, 30, 22-32. [Link]
    • TAÇON, P. S. C., AUBERT, M., LI, G., YANG, D., LIU, H., MAY, S. K., FALLONG, S., JI, X., CURNOE, D. & HERRIES, A. I. R. 2012. Uranium-series age estimates for rock art in southwest China. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39, 492-499. [Link]
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    • MEACHAM, W. 2009. The Archaeology of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press.
    • MEACHAM, W. 2009. Rock Carvings in Hong Kong, Hong Kong, William Meacham. [Buy]

    Rock Art of Thailand [top]

    • SURINLERT, J., AUETRAKULVIT, P., ZEITOUN, V., TIAMTINKRIT, C. & KHEMNAK, P. 2018. Comparison of rock painting sites in the Pratu Pha Valley, Lampang Province, Thailand. In: TAN, N. H. (ed.) Advancing Southeast Asian Archaeology 2016. Bangkok: SEAMEO SPAFA. [Link]
    • SUKKHAM, A., TACON, P. S. C., TAN, N. H. & ASYAARI BIN MUHAMAD 2017. Ships and Maritime Activities in the North-eastern Indian Ocean: re-analysis of rock art of Tham Phrayanaga (Viking Cave), southern Thailand. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 46, 108-131. [Link]
    • TAN, N. H., SUKKHAM, A., BOYLE, G., TANOMPOLKRANG, W., BOWONSACHOTI, J. & SINGHASENI, D. 2016. “What Rock Art?” Stories from Northeast Thailand. In: BRADY, L. M. & TAÇON, P. S. C. (eds.) Relating to Rock Art in the Contemporary World. Boulder, Colorado: University of Colorado Press. [Buy]
    • TAN, N. H. & TAÇON, P. S. C. 2014. Rock Art and the Sacred Landscapes of Mainland Southeast Asia. In: GILLETTE, D., MURRAY, W. B., GREER, M. & HAYWARD, M. H. (eds.) Rock Art and Sacred Landscapes. New York: Springer Science. [Buy]
    • ZEITOUN, V., AUETRAKULVIT, P., FORESTIER, H., ZAZZO, A., DAVTIAN, G., NAKBUNLUNG, S. & TIAMTINKRITG, C. 2013. Discovery of a Mesolithic burial near the painted rock-shelter of Ban Tha Si (Lampang province, Northern Thailand): Implications for regional mortuary practices. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 12, 127–136. [Link]
    • SIDISUNTHORN, P., GARDNER, S. & SMART, D. 2006. Caves of Northern Thailand, Bangkok, River Books. [Buy]
    • TREERAYAPIWAT, C. 2005. Patterns of Habitation and Burial Activity in the Ban Rai Rock Shelter, Northwestern Thailand. Asian Perspectives, 44, 231-245. [Link]
    • SHOOCONGDEJ, R. 2001. Gender Roles Depicted in Rock Art: A Case from Western Thailand. In: NELSON, M. & ROSEN-AYALON, M. (eds.) In Pursuit of Gender: Worldwide Archaeological Approaches. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press. [Buy]
    • MUNIER, C. 1998. Sacred Rocks and Buddhist Caves in Thailand, Bangkok, White Lotus. [Buy]
    • KHEMNAK, P. 1996. Sinlapa Tham Samai Kon Prawattisat Nai Prathet Thai [Prehistoric Cave Art in Thailand], Bangkok, Fine Arts Department. [Buy]
    • BLAKE, W. 1996. Drawings of ships in caves in Thailand. Bulletin of the Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology, 20, 39-64. [Link]
    • DUNKLEY, J. R. 1995. The Caves of Thailand, Sydney, Speleological Research Council.
    • SRISUCHAT, A. 1992. Rock Art Of The Historic Period In Thailand, Bangkok, Fine Arts Department.
    • BULLEN, M. 1992. Rock Art in Thailand. In: LORBLANCHET, M. (ed.) Rock Art in the Old World. India: Thomson Press Ltd.

    Rock Art of East Timor (Timor Leste) [top]

    • OLIVEIRA, N. V., O’CONNOR, S. & BELLWOOD, P. 2019. Dong Son drums from Timor-Leste: prehistoric bronze artefacts in Island Southeast Asia. Antiquity, 93, 163-180. [Link]
    • O’CONNOR, S., MAHIRTA, TANUDIRJO, D., RIRIMASSE, M., HUSNI, M., KEALY, S., HAWKINS, S. & ALIFAH 2017. Ideology, Ritual Performance and Its Manifestations in the Rock Art of Timor-Leste and Kisar Island, Island Southeast Asia. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 1-17. [Link]
    • GALIPAUD, J.-C., KINASTON, R. & GUILLAUD, D. 2016. Aleti Tunu Bibi: Contextualizing a New Rock Art Site in East Timor and the Wider Asia-Pacific Region. Asian Perspectives, 55, 128-147. [Link]
    • O’CONNOR, S. 2015. Rethinking the Neolithic in Island Southeast Asia, with Particular Reference to the Archaeology of Timor-Leste and Sulawesi. Archipel, 90, 15-47. [Link]
    • O’CONNOR, S., APLIN, K., PIERRE, E. S. & FENG, Y.-X. 2010. Faces of the ancestors revealed: discovery and dating of a Pleistocene-age petroglyph in Lene Hara Cave, East Timor. Antiquity, 84, 649-665. [Link]
    • O’CONNOR, S. & OLIVERA, N. V. 2007. Inter- and Intraregional Variation in the Austronesian Painting Tradition: A View from East Timor. Asian Perspectives, 46, 389-403. [Link]
    • LAPE, P. V., O’CONNOR, S. & BURNINGHAM, N. 2007. Rock Art: A Potential Source of Information about Past Maritime Technology in the South-East Asia-Pacific Region. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 36, 238–253. [Link]
    • AUBERT, M., O’CONNOR, S., MCCULLOCH, M., MORTIMER, G., WATCHMAN, A. & RICHER-LAFLÈCHE, M. 2007. Uranium-series dating rock art in East Timor. Journal of Archaeological Science, 34, 991-996. [Link]
    • O’CONNOR, S. 2003. Nine new painted rock art sites from East Timor in the Context of the Western Pacific Region. Asian Perspectives, 42, 96-128. [Link]
    • O’CONNOR, S., SPRIGGS, M. & VETH, P. 2002. Excavation at Lene Hara Cave establishes occupation in East Timor at least 30,000-35,000 years. Antiquity, 76, 45-50. [Link]

    Rock Art of Vietnam [top]

    • TRAN KY PHUONG, LUONGKHOTH, T. & PHON, K. 2015. The New Archaeological Finds in Northeast Cambodia, Southern Laos and Central Highland of Vietnam: Considering on the Significance of Overland Trading Route and Cultural Interactions of the Ancient Kingdoms of Champa and Cambodia. In: TAN, N. H. (ed.) Advancing Southeast Asian Archaeology 2013: Selected Papers from the First SEAMEO SPAFA International Conference on Southeast Asian Archaeology, Chonburi, Thailand 2013. Bangkok: SEAMEO SPAFA.
    • TRINH, N. C. 2007. Nhung Hinh Khac Co Tren Da O Xin Man, Ha Giang. Khao Go, 149, 76-84.
    • GOLOUBEW, V. 1925. Roches gravées dans la région de Chapa. Bulletin de l’Ecole française d’Extrême-Orient, 25, 423-433. [Link]

    Rock Art of the Western Pacific [top]

    • CARSON, M. T. 2017. Cultural spaces inside and outside caves: a study in Guam, western Micronesia. Antiquity, 91, 421-441. [Link]
    • MILLERSTROM, S. 2012. Polynesian rock art research, 2005- 2009. In: BAHN, P., FRANKLIN, N. & STRECKER, M. (eds.) Rock Art Studies News of the World IV. Oxford: Oxbow. [Buy]
    • TACON, P. S. C., MAY, S. K., FALLON, S. J., TRAVERS, M., GUSE, D. & LAMILAMI, R. 2010. A minimum age for early depictions of Southeast Asian praus in the rock art of Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. Australian Archaeology, 71, 1-10. [Link]

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