Bajau Sea Nomads genetically adapted for freediving

A new paper published in Cell finds that the spleens of the Bajau people, the Sea Nomads of Island Southeast Asia, are significantly larger than their land-based neighbours, which has been the result of many generations of natural selection. Larger spleen size helps in diving by providing extra oxygenated blood into the body.

Physiological and Genetic Adaptations to Diving in Sea Nomads
Cell, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.03.054

Understanding the physiology and genetics of human hypoxia tolerance has important medical implications, but this phenomenon has thus far only been investigated in high-altitude human populations. Another system, yet to be explored, is humans who engage in breath-hold diving. The indigenous Bajau people (“Sea Nomads”) of Southeast Asia live a subsistence lifestyle based on breath-hold diving and are renowned for their extraordinary breath-holding abilities. However, it is unknown whether this has a genetic basis. Using a comparative genomic study, we show that natural selection on genetic variants in the PDE10A gene have increased spleen size in the Bajau, providing them with a larger reservoir of oxygenated red blood cells. We also find evidence of strong selection specific to the Bajau on BDKRB2, a gene affecting the human diving reflex. Thus, the Bajau, and possibly other diving populations, provide a new opportunity to study human adaptation to hypoxia tolerance.

See also:

WESTERN AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM CATALOGUE OF PREVIOUSLY UNPUBLISHED DATA FROM THAI-AUSTRALIAN EXCAVATIONS IN THAILAND

via the Western Australian Museum: This report has been collated for the purpose of completing the record of artefacts recovered during excavations undertaken by joint Thai-Australian expeditions in the 1980s. This group represented the Thai Fine Arts Department Underwater Archaeology Division, Silapakorn University, the Thai Ceramic Archaeological Project, the Western Australian Museum, the Australian (now Australasian) Institute for Archaeology, the University of Adelaide, the Art Gallery of South Australia and on occasion, participants of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMO), Special Project in Archaeology and Fine Arts (SPAFA). Participants represented Thailand, Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Canada, Poland and the United States of America. Included is information recorded by the author whilst participating in excavations of kiln sites at Si Satchanalai, Sukhothai Province and the Bang Rachan or Mae Nam Noi Kiln site, Singburi Province, Thailand during the 1980s. A brief visit was also made to the Ban Bang Pun Kiln site, Suphanburi. The author was also privileged to have been given access to the ceramic sherd collection of the National Museum of the Philippines, Manila and those of the regional museums of Butuan and Cebu cities.

No volcanic winter in East Africa from ancient Toba eruption: The supereruption 74,000 years ago did not trigger major environmental disruption that caused human populations in East Africa to decline, say geoscientists.

via Science Daily, 06 Feb 2018: The Toba supereruption on the island of Sumatra about 74,000 years ago did not cause a six-year-long ‘volcanic winter’ in East Africa and thereby cause the human population in the region to plummet, according to new research based on an analysis of ancient plant remains from lake cores. The new findings disagree with the Toba catastrophe hypothesis, which says the eruption and its aftermath caused drastic, multi-year cooling and severe ecological disruption in East Africa.

The Toba supereruption on the island of Sumatra about 74,000 years ago did not cause a six-year-long ‘volcanic winter’ in East Africa and thereby cause the human population in the region to plummet, according to new research based on an analysis of ancient plant remains from lake cores. The new findings disagree with the Toba catastrophe hypothesis, which says the eruption and its aftermath caused drastic, multi-year cooling and severe ecological disruption in East Africa.

Source: No volcanic winter in East Africa from ancient Toba eruption: The supereruption 74,000 years ago did not trigger major environmental disruption that caused human populations in East Africa to decline, say geoscientists.

[Paper] Ideology, Ritual Performance and Its Manifestations in the Rock Art of Timor-Leste and Kisar Island, Island Southeast Asia

New paper on newly-discovered rock art on Kisar Island, Indonesia by O’Connor et al. published in the Cambridge Archaeology Journal. What’s really interesting in this paper is the fact that the paintings have some similarities with those from East Timor, about 20 km across the sea.

Painted rock art occurs throughout the islands of the Western Pacific and has previously been argued to have motif and design elements in common, indicating that it was created within the context of a shared symbolic system. Here we report five new painted rock-art sites from Kisar Island in eastern Indonesia and investigate the commonalities between this art and the painted art corpus in Timor-Leste, the independent nation that forms the eastern part of the neighbouring island of Timor. We examine the motifs in the Kisar art and suggest that, rather than being Neolithic in age, some of the figurative motifs more likely have a Metal Age origin, which in this region places them within the last 2500 years.

Source: Ideology, Ritual Performance and Its Manifestations in the Rock Art of Timor-Leste and Kisar Island, Island Southeast Asia | Cambridge Archaeological Journal | Cambridge Core

See also

Indonesian island found to be unusually rich in cave paintings

via the Australian National University, 13 December 2017:

A tiny Indonesian island, previously unexplored by archaeologists, has been found to be unusually rich in ancient cave paintings following a study by researchers from The Australian National University (ANU). The team uncovered a total of 28 rock art sites dating from at least 2,500 years ago on the island of Kisar which measures just 81 square kilometres and lies north of Timor-Leste.

Source: Indonesian island found to be unusually rich in cave paintings

NSC Archaeological Reports 7: Archiving Archaeological Materials

A new report available for download from the Nalanda-Sriwijaya Centre in Singapore by Lim Chen Sian et al.:

ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute and the National Heritage Board Singapore conducted a workshop on Archiving Archaeological Materials in 2014. Heritage practitioners and archaeology specialists from the United Kingdom and Singapore were invited to discuss the need to develop an archaeological archive. Related issues in handling archaeological remains were also discussed. Archaeological remains are non-renewable heritage assets. They need to be removed, processed, catalogued, stored, and archived properly for future generations of researchers, educators, the public, and many other global stakeholders. The papers in this volume compile a range of perspectives, approaches, and possible solutions.

Source: Archiving Archaeological Materials by Lim Chen Sian, Duncan H. Brown, Derek Heng, Frank M. Meddens, and John N. Miksic

[New Paper] Revisiting the Bujang Valley: A Southeast Asian entrepôt complex on the maritime trade route

New paper on the Bujang Valley by Stephen Murphy:

In the early 1830s and 1840s, a British colonial official by the name of Colonel James Low uncovered evidence for an early culture with Indic traits in a river system known as the Bujang Valley. On the west coast of the Thai-Malay peninsula, the Bujang Valley is today located in the Malaysian state of Kedah. However, it wasn’t until just before World War II that excavations took place, conducted by H. G. Quaritch Wales and his wife Dorothy. Their discoveries and subsequent publications led to the first real attempts to explain the origins and extent of this civilisation and its place within the larger South and Southeast Asian world. In the intervening years between Quaritch Wales’s excavations and the present day, considerably more research has taken place within the Bujang Valley, though this has not been without controversy. Recently claims and counter-claims regarding the antiquity of Hinduism and Buddhism at the site have arisen in some quarters within Malaysia. It therefore seems pertinent that this material be re-evaluated in light of new scholarship and discoveries as well as the prevailing paradigms of interactions between South and Southeast Asia. This paper presents an updated reading of this material and argues that the Bujang Valley should be seen as a cosmopolitan trading port with substantive evidence for the presence of Hinduism and Buddhism.

Source: Revisiting the Bujang Valley: A Southeast Asian entrepôt complex on the maritime trade route | Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society | Cambridge Core
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1356186317000505

[New Paper] Potent Places in Central Vietnam: ‘Everything that Comes Out of the Earth is Cham’

New paper in the Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology by Anne-Valérie Schweyer:

Set apart from the so-called ‘Hinduisation’ process, the Cham country is characterised by the presence of many sites or shrines dedicated to local deities. This paper—based on the analysis of archaeological and anthropological evidence—aims to identify these cults, to clarify the associated practices and to demonstrate how the local cults map out the entire local geography. Moreover, in central Vietnam, it is possible to precisely examine ‘potent places’ in order to achieve a better understanding of the local cults and the persistence of those cults from antiquity to the present. In ancient times, each local deity was connected to a political power, which ‘exhaled’ it and, at the same time, put a mark on the territory. The diversity of potent places allows a better understanding of puzzling territories. The continuity of ritual practices performed at Cham potent places, centuries after the disappearance of any form of Cham political power, shows the link between the first occupants of the land and the following Viet inhabitants.

Source: Potent Places in Central Vietnam: ‘Everything that Comes Out of the Earth is Cham’
https://doi.org/10.1080/14442213.2017.1370478

New Paper: Evidence for the breakdown of an Angkorian hydraulic system, and its historical implications for understanding the Khmer Empire

New paper by Lustig et al. in JAS: Reports

This paper examines the construction and design of a 7-km long embankment, probably built for King Jayavarman IV between 928 and 941 CE, as part of a new capital. We calculate that the capacities of the outlets were too small, and conclude that the embankment failed, probably within a decade of construction, so that the benefits of the reservoir stored by the embankment and the access road on top of it were lessened substantially. We explain how the design was sub-optimal for construction, and that while the layout had a high aesthetic impact, the processes for ensuring structural integrity were poor. Simple and inexpensive steps to secure the weir were not undertaken. We speculate that this early failure may have contributed to the decision to return the royal court and the capital of the Khmer Empire to the Angkor region, marking a critically important juncture in regional history.

Evidence for the breakdown of an Angkorian hydraulic system, and its historical implications for understanding the Khmer Empire
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.11.014

New Paper: Rock art and the colonisation of Southeast Asia

Over the past decade, archaeologists have been able to directly date rock art, particularly in Island Southeast Asia at sites in East Kalimantan, East Timor and South Sulawesi. The dates of rock art indicate that modern humans were creating rock art during the Pleistocene, comparable to similar rock art in Europe. In this paper by Aubert et al., the authors note that the presence of these sites and dates now begs the question, did the ability to create rock art move out of Africa with human migrations, or did it erupt independently in different parts of the world? Also within Island Southeast Asia, did rock art develop from a specific place and spread throughout prehistoric Sahul, or did it arise independently among different communities in the region?

Recent technological developments in scientific dating methods and their applications to a broad range of materials have transformed our ability to accurately date rock art. These novel breakthroughs in turn are challenging and, in some instances, dramatically changing our perceptions of the timing and the nature of the development of rock art and other forms of symbolic expression in various parts of the late Pleistocene world. Here we discuss the application of these methods to the dating of rock art in Southeast Asia, with key implications for understanding the pattern of recent human evolution and dispersal outside Africa.

The Timing and Nature of Human Colonization of Southeast Asia in the Late Pleistocene: A Rock Art Perspective – Current Anthropology
https://doi.org/10.1086/694414