A new museum is planned for the regency of Malang in Java to house and protect its archaeological and cultural treasures. The museum is slated to be built in the Singhasari Temple archaeological compound.
The ball is in the central government’s court over whether a Malang regency mosque should be moved in order to better preserve a set of 12th-century walls, believed to be the remants of the Singosari kingdom.
Historic site languishes under mosque as govt looks away
Jakarta Post, 17 September 2008
Lest this post sounds like an ideological battle, it’s actually more… architectural. Renovations to a local mosque are preventing archaeologists from investigating the remains of the ancient kingdom of Singosari in Java, Indonesia. Archaeologists fear that the renovations might damage the foundations of two 12th-century walls located underneath the mosque.
Archaeologists lament neglect of historic Singosari town
Jakarta Post, 10 September 2008
In this second part of the Ancient Script of Southeast Asia (click here for part 1), we’ll explore two more exhibits from the Aksara: The Passage of Malay Scripts exhibition at the National Library of Singapore. These two pieces are from Terengganu in Malaysia, and Java in Indonesia.
The first exhibit, the Terengganu Scripted Stone, stands at the mouth entrance between the Sacred Writings gallery and the Islamic gallery. Anyone who’s visited the Terengannu State Museum (where the original sits) or the National History Museum in Kuala Lumpur would instantly recognise this Terengganu Stone. I hear it also features in the Malaysian history textbooks as well.
Discovered in the late 19th century, the Terengganu Inscribed Stone, or Batu Bersurat, dates to the 14th century and is the oldest evidence for Islam in Malaysia. The script used is Jawi while the language is Malay, and the inscription describes a set of Islamic laws, as well as proclaiming Islam as the state religion. As to which state this may be remains unclear – the region of Terengganu was known to be under the influence of Srivijaya as late as the 13th century, while the Terengganu Sultanate only dates as far back as the 18th century. The stone is inscribed on four sides, although it probably would have been larger – as you can guess, the top portion of the stone has been broken off and is probably lost for all time…
I was surprised that these “venetian blinds” were not mentioned in the exhibition guidebook. While they may look like a set of ancient venetian blinds, they are actually a collected set of palm leaves on which a Balinese script is written. This is the Pararaton, or the Javanese Book of Kings, which is on loan from the National Library of Indonesia. Given that the Pararaton was written in palm leaves, I was surprised to see a copy in such good condition.
Here’s a closer look at the Pararaton and the Balinese script. As one can guess from the name, the Javanese Book of Kings describes the events during the rule of the kings of the Singosari kngdom and Majapahit Empire which was centred in Java. Although the date of this particular copy is unknown, the Pararaton was first written at the end of the 15th century. Like its Malay counterpart the Sejarah Melayu (the Malay Annals), the Pararaton is a mix of myth, legend and historical events, which make some of its contents suspect when using it as a source for historical events. Unlike the Malay Annals, the Pararaton is made more difficult to read accurately because the record of kings and nobility mentioned in it are referred to by title rather than name!
Strangely enough, the Aksara exhibition did not feature the only ancient inscription from Singapore: the Singapore Stone. The Singapore Stone is a sad page from the local book of archaeology: this inscribed boulder once stood at the mouth of the Singapore River and may have potentially been the very same stone mentioned in the Malay Annals, but early in Singapore’s modern history, the British decided to blow up the stone in order to widen the mouth of the Singapore river. Only fragments of the stone remain, one of which is exhibited in the permanent collection of the National Museum of Singapre and to this date remains undeciphered.
Well, these are only some of the highlights from the Aksara: The Passage of Malay Scripts exhibition going on at the Singapore National Library. I’ve only chosen to focus on some of the ancient inscriptions, and there are many more ancient examples of writing, as well as galleries featuring other Malay writings in more modern times. The exhibition finishes its run at the end of this month, so if you’re in Singapore, don’t miss this opportunity to catch it! Go now before it’s too late! (And don’t forget to catch the Saturday guided tours at noon and 1 pm!)
SEAArch would like to thank the National Library Board, Singapore for the permission to take photographs in this exhibition.
Books featuring ancient Southeast Asian scripts and inscriptions:
– Uncovering Southeast Asia’s Past: Selected Papers from the 10th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists by E. A. Bacus, I. Glover and V. C. Pigott (Eds)
– Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History by P. S. Bellwood and I. Glover (Eds)
– The Pararaton by I Gusti Putu Phalgunadi
2 June 2006 (Jakarta Post) – An unidentified boat, accidentally discovered last year, is in danger of disintegration. Appeal to readers who can help to email Duncan Graham at email@example.com
… a well-preserved broad-beamed 25-meter barge. The design was strange — local boats are narrow and less than half that length.
It seems the barge was oar-powered, with benches for rowers and ports for rowlocks.
On the planked sides are wave-like motifs and a diagram of an arrow on a stick. On an internal timber a mark has been transcribed as 1612.
Locals convinced of the barge’s antiquity have linked it to the Singosari kingdom of 700 years ago. Others claim it’s a royal Thai barge because someone has said the teak used can be found only in Thailand and Kalimantan.